2021 Tesla Model 3 Long Range

Car Body
Battery Capacity: 82 kWh
Weight: 4,265 lbs (+200 lbs)
Cd: 0.23 | A: 2.21 m2 | Crr:
SpeedRangeEfficiencyAerodynamic DragRolling ResistanceTotal Power
50 mphNaN miNaN Wh/mi3.41 kWNaN kWNaN kW
55 mphNaN miNaN Wh/mi4.53 kWNaN kWNaN kW
60 mphNaN miNaN Wh/mi5.89 kWNaN kWNaN kW
65 mphNaN miNaN Wh/mi7.48 kWNaN kWNaN kW

Vehicle Parameters

Battery Charge: 80%80Speed: 65 mph65Extra Weight: 200 lbs200Auxiliary Power: 0.5 kW     (Est: 0.5 - 1 kW)0.5

External Parameters

Headwind: 0 mph0Ambient Temperature: 70 °F70Elevation: 0 feet0
Air Pressure: 101,325 Pa
Air Density: 1.2 kg / m^3

How Does This Work?

This simulation uses Newton's Laws of Physics to calculate all forces acting on the vehicle.

Negative Forces: Air Resistance and Rolling Resistance

Positive Forces: Wheel Force provided by motor(s)

Air Resistance

Fd=12ρv2CdAF_d = {1\over2}ρ{v}^2C_dA
The force acting opposite to the relative motion of any object moving with respect to a surrounding fluid (air).

Unlike other resistive forces, air resistance depends on velocity.

Air Density (ρρ) 

Mass per unit volume of Earth's atmosphere with units kg/m3kg/m^3

Velocity (vv) 

How fast the vehicle is moving (speed) with units m/sm/s

Coefficient of Drag (CdC_d) 

Dimensionless quantity that is used to quantify the drag or resistance of an object in a fluid environment

Frontal Area (AA) 

Reference Area or cross-sectional area of vehicle perpendicular to velocity vector with units m2m^2

Rolling Resistance

Frr=CrrNF_{rr} = C_{rr}N
The force resisting the motion when a tire rolls on a surface.

It depends on many factors including tire compound, width, inflation pressure, and more.

Coefficient of Rolling Resistance (CrrC_{rr}) 

Force needed to push a wheeled vehicle forward (at constant speed on a level surface with zero grade and air resistance) per unit force of weight

Normal Force (NN) 

Weight of the object: Fn=mgF_n=mg where mm is mass and gg is the gravitational field strength (about 9.806m/s29.806 m/s^2 on Earth)