NaN

Wh/mi

NaN

Miles

Speed | Range | Efficiency | Aerodynamic Drag | Rolling Resistance | Total Power |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

50 mph | NaN mi | NaN Wh/mi | 3.5 kW | NaN kW | NaN kW |

55 mph | NaN mi | NaN Wh/mi | 4.66 kW | NaN kW | NaN kW |

60 mph | NaN mi | NaN Wh/mi | 6.05 kW | NaN kW | NaN kW |

65 mph | NaN mi | NaN Wh/mi | 7.69 kW | NaN kW | NaN kW |

This simulation uses Newton's Laws of Physics to calculate all forces acting on the vehicle.

** Negative Forces**: Air Resistance and Rolling Resistance

** Positive Forces**: Wheel Force provided by motor(s)

The force acting opposite to the relative motion of any object moving with respect to a surrounding fluid (air).

Unlike other resistive forces, air resistance depends on velocity.

Mass per unit volume of Earth's atmosphere with units $kg/m^3$

How fast the vehicle is moving (speed) with units $m/s$

Dimensionless quantity that is used to quantify the drag or resistance of an object in a fluid environment

Reference Area or cross-sectional area of vehicle perpendicular to velocity vector with units $m^2$

The force resisting the motion when a tire rolls on a surface.

It depends on many factors including tire compound, width, inflation pressure, and more.

Force needed to push a wheeled vehicle forward (at constant speed on a level surface with zero grade and air resistance) per unit force of weight

Weight of the object: $F_n=mg$ where $m$ is mass and $g$ is the gravitational field strength (about $9.806 m/s^2$ on Earth)