# 2021 Tesla Model 3 Long Range

NaN
Wh/mi
NaN
Miles  Usable Capacity: 79.2 kWh
Weight: 4,265 lbs (+200 lbs)
Cd: 0.23 | A: 2.27 m2 | Crr:
SpeedRangeEfficiencyAerodynamic DragRolling ResistanceTotal Power
50 mphNaN miNaN Wh/mi3.5 kWNaN kWNaN kW
55 mphNaN miNaN Wh/mi4.66 kWNaN kWNaN kW
60 mphNaN miNaN Wh/mi6.05 kWNaN kWNaN kW
65 mphNaN miNaN Wh/mi7.69 kWNaN kWNaN kW

## Vehicle Parameters

Battery Charge: 80%80Speed: 65 mph65Extra Weight: 200 lbs200Auxiliary Power: 0.5 kW     (Est: 0.5 - 1 kW)0.5

## External Parameters

Headwind: 0 mph0Ambient Temperature: 70 °F70Elevation: 0 feet0
Air Pressure: 101,325 Pa
Air Density: 1.2 kg / m^3

# How Does This Work?

This simulation uses Newton's Laws of Physics to calculate all forces acting on the vehicle.

Negative Forces: Air Resistance and Rolling Resistance

Positive Forces: Wheel Force provided by motor(s)

## Air Resistance

$F_d = {1\over2}ρ{v}^2C_dA$
The force acting opposite to the relative motion of any object moving with respect to a surrounding fluid (air).

Unlike other resistive forces, air resistance depends on velocity.

Air Density ($ρ$)

Mass per unit volume of Earth's atmosphere with units $kg/m^3$

Velocity ($v$)

How fast the vehicle is moving (speed) with units $m/s$

Coefficient of Drag ($C_d$)

Dimensionless quantity that is used to quantify the drag or resistance of an object in a fluid environment

Frontal Area ($A$)

Reference Area or cross-sectional area of vehicle perpendicular to velocity vector with units $m^2$

## Rolling Resistance

$F_{rr} = C_{rr}N$
The force resisting the motion when a tire rolls on a surface.

It depends on many factors including tire compound, width, inflation pressure, and more.

Coefficient of Rolling Resistance ($C_{rr}$)

Force needed to push a wheeled vehicle forward (at constant speed on a level surface with zero grade and air resistance) per unit force of weight

Normal Force ($N$)

Weight of the object: $F_n=mg$ where $m$ is mass and $g$ is the gravitational field strength (about $9.806 m/s^2$ on Earth)